China in Modern Era

Republic of China

The October of October of 1911 the Wuchang Uprising, rebellion against the Qing Dynasty is produced in the present city of Wuhan, which causes the Xinhai Revolution, which will end with the final overthrow of the last Qing emperor, Puyi, in 1912.

Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen, upon hearing of the Wuchang uprising, returns to China from the United States. Although Sun is appointed President of the ROC, the country is divided, dominated by local leaders, and reaches an agreement with the prominent military Yuan Shikai, who controlled the remnants of the Qing army in the north, so that it be president.

The ambition of Yuan Shikai, who would come to proclaim himself emperor in 1915, increases opposition to him. China was still divided, and Sun Yat-sen returned from exile to settle in Canton, from where he led the Kuomintang, the political party that he had founded. In Canton, Sun Yat-sen founds the Whampoa Military Academy, which will form the army that, under the command of Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat-sen’s successor at the head of the Kuomintang, will manage to conquer much of China and establish in Nanking the capital of the ROC, fulfilling the ambition of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang Kai-shek becomes President of the Republic.

Chiang was not sympathetic to the communist doctrine, and in 1927 he began a large-scale repressive process against the communists in the units of the National Revolutionary Army, trade unions and other social areas of the country, especially in Shanghai. It also strongly repressed the left within the Kuomintang.

In 1931 Japan conquered Manchuria, and established the puppet state of Manchukuo there. In 1937 the Japanese army began an invasion of China. After the end of World War II, in 1945, Japan abandoned its conquests in Asia, and China regained Manchuria and Taiwan.

With those who managed to escape Chiang Kai-shek’s betrayal in 1927, Mao Zedong led in the mountainous area of Jiangsu and Fujian provinces the establishment, over a vast territory, of the center of armed resistance with a strong core of consistent communists. and well organized, which was described as the Soviet Republic of China.

Faced with the much superior nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shek, around 100,000 Chinese fighters, under the leadership of Mao, began the Long March to the northwest in 1934, skirting the center, a journey of more than 6,000 kilometers, fighting constantly along the route for more than a year, which was an unprecedented feat and made Mao Zedong the undisputed leader of the Party and the Revolution in China.

The Second Sino-Japanese War began on July 7, 1937, being deliberately provoked by the Japanese. Japan occupied most of the coastal cities. At the end of World War II, Chinese casualties would number in the millions.

When the Chinese civil war ended in October 1949, the Kuomintang, supported by the United States, fled to Taiwan, where they established an anti-communist government with full Yankee support. Chiang Kai-shek used the United States Fleet on his voyage to Taiwan.

People’s Republic of China

On October 1, 1949, the leader Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. From the previous years to the 1960s, the United States government, through the Army and the CIA, was directly and actively involved in a broad program of clandestine warfare, which included the training of paramilitary forces and their introduction in continental territory of the Asian country, as well as the promotion of networks of agents for sabotage and espionage.

Numerous incursions into Chinese territory were carried out by commandos infiltrated by air for intelligence and sabotage actions. In 1954, the Peking government officially revealed that in January 1953 eleven members of the US Air Force had been shot down in China, who were tried and imprisoned, and that between 1951 and 1954 they had killed 106 officers in combat actions. Taiwanese and North Americans parachuted over mainland, in addition to having captured 124 others. [1]

The CIA continued to organize irregular war plans against China and in 1955 created a subversive program aimed at stimulating secessionist ideas in the autonomous region of Tibet, based on the manipulation of the religious beliefs of the residents of that intricate geographical area. CIA agents infiltrated the population and the guard of the Dalai Lama, spiritual leader and governmental authority of Tibet at the time; They provoked violent disturbances in 1958, which were soon neutralized by the Beijing authorities. The Dalai-Lama and a considerable number of his personal guard took refuge in northern India, beginning what would be the second stage of the Yankee subversive plan.

In 1960, Cuba established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China, becoming the first country in Latin America to do so.

Despite these attacks, in the past six decades the achievements of the People’s Republic of China are extraordinary, so much so that former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger extended his warm congratulations on the 60th anniversary of its founding and described China’s achievements as “extraordinary.”

As a country located in Asia according to PROGRAMINGPLEASE, China, in a brief historical period and thanks to the Revolution, ceased to be a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country, it grew at a rate of more than 10% during the last 20 years and has become the main engine of the world economy. Never has a huge multinational state achieved such growth. Today it has the highest reserve of convertible currency and is the largest creditor in the United States.

One country, two systems

Great Britain seized Hong Kong in 1842 and by the Treaty of Nanking declared its sovereignty in perpetuity over that territory. But the agreement was renegotiated in 1898 as a 99-year lease. In 1982 Margaret Thatcher, then Prime Minister, signed an agreement with Zao Ziyang, in 1984, to hand over the colony in 1997. After this understanding, many Hong Kong residents began to emigrate, withdrew their capital from the enclave, sold their heritage or transferred it to other countries. The same principle was also proposed in the talks with Portugal about Macao.

The Principle is that until reunification, despite the practice of socialism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao, which were officially colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal respectively, could continue to practice capitalism with a high degree of autonomy for fifty years. after reunification.

The question that opened up was, would Hong Kong become an autonomous territory with a multi-center system, a showcase of market liberalism, or would it be a dependent province? That conjuncture coincided with the disappearance of Den Xiao-ping, author of the so-called market socialism, who coined the well-known formula:

It does not matter if the cats are black or white, the important thing is that they hunt mice.

Deng repeated Guizot’s advice to the French: ” Enrichissez-vous !” He called the Hong Kong experiment “one country, two systems.”

The importance of Hong Kong is due to the fact that it has developed the eighth largest commercial economy in the world. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the second in Asia in terms of the volume of its operations. More than 700 foreign companies have representations and 85, of the 100 largest banks in the world, maintain branches there.

Recently, in violation of previous bilateral agreements and the protocol signed during President Barack Obama’s visit to Beijing, in November 2009, the White House announced that it will make new sales of modern weapons to Taiwan, called by the People’s Republic of China as Taipei of China.

Immediately, the Chinese Foreign Ministry announced that military exchanges with Washington were suspended, as one of the first official reactions. The communiqué finally explained that, inevitably, Sino-American exchanges on other matters of bilateral interest would be adversely affected.

China in Modern Era