Each state also has an appointed presidential governor who can assume certain broad powers when led by the central government. The central government exercises greater control over union territories than states, although some territories have gained more power to administer their own affairs. Local state governments in India have less autonomy compared to their counterparts in the United States and Australia.
India’s independent judicial system began under British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The constitution designates the Supreme Court, the higher courts and the lower courts as the authority to resolve disputes between the people as well as disputes related to the people and the Government. The constitution through its articles concerning the judicial system provides a way to question the laws of the Government, if the common man finds the laws as inappropriate for any community in India.
On April 24, 1993, constitutional law (from the 73rd amendment of 1992) came into force to provide constitutional status to the institutions of Panchayati Raj. This act was extended to Panchayats in the tribal areas of eight states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan from December 24, 1996.
The act aims to provide the 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all states that have population of over 2 million, to hold Panchayat elections regularly every 5 years, to provide reservation of seats for scheduled breeds, scheduled tribes. and women, to appoint the State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding the financial powers of the Panchayats and to constitute the district planning committee to prepare the draft development plan for the district.
The energies and responsibilities are delegated to Panchayats at the appropriate level:
- Preparation of the plan for economic development and social justice.
- Implementation of the schemes for economic development and social justice in relation to 29 issues given in the eleventh schedule of the constitution.
- To impose, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
Role of political parties
Like any other democracy, political parties represent different sections between Indian society and regions, and their core values play an important role in Indian politics. The executive branch and the legislative branch of the Government are run by representatives of the political parties that have been elected through the elections. With the electoral process, the people of India elect a majority in Lower, a Government can be formed by that party or the coalition.
As a country located in Asia according to PHARMACYLIB, India has a multi-party system, where there are a number of national as well as regional parties. A regional party can win a majority and rule a particular state. If a party represents more than 4 states then such parties are considered as national parties. For most of its independent history, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress (Inc.). The party enjoyed a parliamentary majority except for two brief periods during the 1970s and late 1980s. This rule was interrupted between 1977 to 1980, when the Janata Party coalition won the election due to public discontent with the state of the controversial emergency declared by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Janata Dal the elections won in 1989, but his government managed to hold on to power for only two years. Between 1996 and 1998, there was a period of political flux with the Government being formed first by the right-wing nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) followed by the left-leaning United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance with smaller regional parties, and it became the first non-INC government. and the coalition to complete a full five-year term. 2004 Indian elections saw inc. by winning the largest number of seats to form and lead the Government United Progressive Alliance, and supported by the left-parties and those opposed to the BJP. and the coalition to complete a full five-year term. 2004 Indian elections saw inc. by winning the largest number of seats to form and lead the Government United Progressive Alliance, and supported by the left-parties and those opposed to the BJP.
On May 22, 2004, Manmohan Singh was appointed Prime Minister of India after the victory of Inc. and the left front in the 2004 Lok Sabha Election. UPA now rules India with the help of the left front. Previously, Atal Bihari Vajpayee had taken office in October 1999 after a general election in which a BJP-led coalition of 13 parties called the National Democratic Alliance emerged with a majority.
The formation of the coalition governments reflects the transition in Indian politics away from national parties towards smaller, narrowly-based regional parties. Some regional parties, especially in South India, are deeply aligned with the ideologies of the region unlike the national parties and thus the relationship between the central government and the state government in various states has not always been free of rancor. The disparity between the ideologies of the political parties that govern the center and the state leads to seriously skewed resource allocation between states.