Economy of Israel

According to cheeroutdoor, Israel is a developed industrial and agricultural country. In 2001, Israel’s GDP was 466,200 million new shekels, or $110.6 billion; estimated for 2002, GDP $122 billion, GDP per capita $19,200. The share in world GDP in 2000 was 0.43%. Economically active population 2499 thousand people. (2001). Its main part is employed in industry (17.3%), in wholesale and retail trade, car and household appliance repair shops (13.2%), in real estate, rent and business (12.3%), in healthcare and social services (9.9%).

Sectoral structure of GDP (2001): agriculture – 3%, industry – 30%, services – 67%.

Leading corporations: Clal Israel (jointly owned by the trade union financial group of Hapoalim Bank and the private superholding IBD Holding Corporation), Clal (jointly with the largest trade union industrial concern Kur, owns the Israeli cement industry), Israel Corporation ”, Elron Electronic Industries, Bezek International (telecommunications), Hevrat Hashmal (electricity), Batey Azikuk Le Neft (oil refining), Taasiya Avirit (aviation), etc.

Israel produces rock, table salt, bromine, phosphorites, copper ore, oil and natural gas. The manufacturing industry specializes in the development of science-intensive industries: radio electronics, communications, metalworking, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, oil refining, production of chemical products, cut diamonds and

etc. The military-industrial and scientific-technical complexes are highly developed. Since the 1980s Israeli industry has reached the world level in the field of medical electronics, agricultural technology, telecommunications, chemical industry, computer hardware and software, weapons production, and diamond processing. Israel ranks 12th in the list of world arms exporters. The greatest growth is observed in those industries where high technology prevails, the most advanced equipment is used, and investments in scientific research are also attracted.

The role of agriculture in the economy is small; it employs 2.4% of the economically active population (1997). Grain farming is poorly developed, wheat production in 2000 amounted to only 94 thousand tons. Barley, rice and corn are also cultivated. Israeli farms grow mainly fruits, vegetables, various varieties of flowers. During the winter months, Israel exports long stemmed roses, hybrid carnations, cucumbers, tomatoes, melons, kiwis, mangoes, avocados, strawberries and citrus fruits to Europe. Dairy farming and poultry farming are also developed (the number of cattle in 1999 was 395,000, sheep, 380,000, and chickens, 27.3 million).

The length of railways with a standard gauge (1.4 m) is 647 km, the volume of traffic is 1098 million tkm and 961 million pass-km (2001). The length of roads is 15,965 km, the total number of vehicles is 78.7 thousand (2001). There is a network of pipelines: for pumping oil – 708 km long, oil products – 290 km, natural gas – 89 km. Main ports: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Eilat, Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv, Yafo. Deep-water ports in Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat serve international ships. The port of Haifa is one of the largest cargo and passenger ports in the Mediterranean. In 2001, there were 48 ships with a total displacement of 611.4 thousand tons. In 2001, 13,287 thousand tons of cargo were loaded, 29,695 thousand tons were unloaded. There are 54 airports in the country. Airport them. David Ben-Gurion – the main air gate of Israel.

Israel is connected to most international, commercial, financial and university information systems and is connected to the whole world through submarine cables and satellite communication systems. Telephone, telex and facsimile communications, e-mail provide operational communications both within the country and with the outside world. The share of lines using digital technology increased to 87% in ser. 1990s The number of multi-channel television subscribers is 1.69 million, Internet users are 1.94 million (2001).

The infrastructure of domestic trade is represented mainly by a network of markets (shuks), as well as small and medium-sized shops. From the beginning 1990s in Israeli trade, such trends as the consolidation and growth of the share of private capital were manifested. Widespread multi-storey centers of trade, service and leisure, the so-called. canyons. To con. 1990s Tnuva Shivouk was the largest retailer specializing in wholesale trade, while retail trade was dominated by Corp. Haribua hacahoi.

The service sector has long lagged behind other sectors of the economy in terms of the introduction of the achievements of scientific and technological progress and the growth of labor productivity. Gradually, such traditional types of services as trade, catering, hotel business, personal services, gave way to more modern types of services: insurance, real estate transactions, business services (marketing, leasing, engineering and consulting and other services). Directly related to the maintenance of production, the financial services sector is one of the oldest and most developed industries. Tourism is an industry that provides significant income in foreign currency. In 2000, 2.4 million tourists visited Israel, compared with 441 thousand in 1970. They are attracted by a variety of climatic zones, archaeological sites and religious shrines, as well as modern resorts in the Mediterranean, Dead and Red Seas,

The direction, goals and methods of state regulation of economic processes, as well as the very concept of a mixed economy, in the middle. 1990s have undergone significant changes. The state has reduced its regulatory activity, changing its focus as well — from a policy of current stabilization of the economic situation to a long-term economic growth strategy based on the improvement of the financial sector and the solution of structural economic problems. The policy of strengthening the market mechanism of economic regulation continued.

The credit system of the country is headed by the state central bank – the Bank of Israel. He monopolizes the issuance of banknotes, is a banker and treasurer of the government, provides him with short-term loans, acts as an agent of the government in managing public debt. The volume of reserves of the Bank of Israel in 2001 is 23.4 billion shekels. The leading commercial banks formed the backbone of the financial groups dominating the economy: Bank Hapoalim, Bank Leumi, Bank Beinleumi Garishon.

The state budget in 2002 was reduced to a slight deficit: expenditures amounted to 42.4 billion US dollars (188.9 billion new shekels), revenues of 40 billion US dollars (165 billion shekels). The main items of expenditure were: defense (20.7% of the total), employment and social services (16.9%), education (14.8%). The total amount of tax revenues to the budget was estimated at 132.8 billion shekels. The formation in Israel of a special model of the economy, characterized by the presence of a powerful military-industrial complex that requires significant expenditures, a constant deficit in the trade and balance of payments, led to an increase in external debt, the amount of which in 2001 reached 42.8 billion US dollars.

Wages for all sectors of the economy are negotiated between the government, the largest employer, the Histadrut, and the Employers’ Association, which represents all other entrepreneurs. The minimum monthly wage from April 1, 1999 is 2797.75 shekels, the minimum hourly wage is 15.04 shekels. The average salary is 6689 shekels per month. In 1990-98, the total consumption costs of Israelis amounted to 30-35 billion US dollars. The share in the consumer basket of expenditures on durable goods has increased.

With a relatively small domestic market and limited economic potential, Israel can achieve higher economic growth rates only through increased exports. The value of exports was estimated in 2002 at $2.8 billion. Machinery and equipment, chemicals, cut diamonds, textiles, fruits (mainly citrus fruits) are exported. The main export partners (share in%): USA (42.8), Benelux countries (7.4), Hong Kong (6.8) and others. The value of imports is 30.8 billion US dollars. OK. 70% of imports were capital goods and fuel, the rest was raw materials, rough diamonds, consumer goods. Main import partners (share in%): USA (23.5), Benelux countries (10.2), Germany (7.9), Great Britain (6.7), etc.

Economy of Israel