History of Armenia
The Armenian highland is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. In the struggle against the expansion of Assyria (from the 13th century BC), the tribes of the Armenian Highlands united into alliances, on the basis of which in the 9th century. BC. the state of Urartu was formed.
Armenia reached its greatest power under Tigiran II, who united the Armenian lands into a single state. In the 3rd century AD Armenia became dependent on the Sassanids of Iran, and only in the 4th c. became independent. In 387 Byzantium and Iran divided Armenia among themselves. After Iran demanded that the Armenians renounce Christianity and adopt the Iranian religion of Zaostrism (450), anti-Iranian protests began. In 1639, after the peace concluded between Turkey and Iran, Armenia was finally divided: Western Armenia went to Turkey, Eastern Armenia to Iran. The last remnants of the Armenian statehood were the 5 meliksts of Nagorno-Karabakh, which existed until the end of the 18th century. In the 16th-18th centuries Russia opposed Ottoman expansionism and Persian influence with its offensive policy. By the beginning of the 19th century, Russian influence in the Transcaucasus was predominant. According to the Gulistan peace treaty of 1813 and the Tukmanchay peace treaty of 1826, Eastern Armenia was annexed to Russia.
The Armenian issue (granting statehood to Armenia) was put on the agenda by the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire. The Armenians advocated the creation of a constitutional system and the formation of an independent Armenian state. The desire of the Armenians to free themselves from Turkish domination turned out to be a national tragedy for them.
On May 20, 1916, Enver Pasha ordered the deportation of Armenians from Anatolia and Cilicia as potential accomplices of the enemy (Russia) to the Arabian Desert. As a result of the genocide, which lasted until December 30, 1915, 1.5 million Armenians died. Soviet power was established on September 29, 1920. On December 30, 1922, Armenia, together with Azerbaijan and Georgia, entered the USSR, first as part of the Transcaucasian Federation (ZSFSR), from December 5, 1936, as a union republic (Armenian SSR).
During the Great Patriotic War, 96 Armenian soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, about 70,000 were awarded orders and medals. Talented commanders advanced – Marshal of the Soviet Union I.Kh. Bagramyan, Admiral of the Fleet of the USSR I.S. Isakov, Air Marshal S.A. Khudyakov (Khanferyan), Marshal of the Armored Forces A.Kh. Babafionyan and others. At the 1991 referendum, 99% of those who took part in it spoke out for the independence of Armenia. On September 25, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted the Declaration of Independence of Armenia.
The burden of unresolved national problems has led since 1988 to a serious conflict in Armenian-Azerbaijani relations over Nagorno-Karabakh. On May 6, 1994, a truce was established on the Karabakh front.
Economy of Armenia
According to cheeroutdoor, GDP 1357 billion drams, GDP per capita 423 drams (2002). The number of people employed in the economy (2002, thousand people) is 1282, including in industry and construction – 214, in agriculture, forestry, fisheries – 573, in the service sector 495. Registered unemployed 187 thousand people. (2002). The total number of pensioners is 553 thousand people. (2002).
Leading industries: mechanical engineering and metalworking, chemical, light (textile and leather and footwear), food (fruit canning and wine and cognac), non-ferrous metallurgy, processing of precious stones and metals, production of building materials.
Energy base: Armenian NPP, hydroelectric power station of the North Hrazdan cascade, hydroelectric power station in Hrazdan, thermal power plant in Yerevan, Kirovakan thermal power plant, etc.
Agricultural output (all categories, current prices) US$378 billion (2002). Gathering of the main agricultural crops: cereals 0.4 million tons, potatoes 0.4 million tons, vegetables 0.5 million tons, fruits and berries 82 thousand tons.
Transportation of goods by transport enterprises (excluding pipelines) 6.8 million tons, passengers 156.2 million people (2002). The length of railways is 1.6 thousand km, motor roads 20.4 thousand km (2000).
Communication services: sent 10.1 million newspapers and magazines, 1.1 million letters, 4.4 thousand parcels, 4.9 million money transfers and pension payments (2000).
Retail turnover through all distribution channels (in current prices) 588.9 billion drams, paid services through all distribution channels (in current prices) 195.3 billion drams (2002).
Due to territorial conflicts, tourism in Armenia does not actually exist. Separate groups of tourists leave Armenia for Iran, Egypt, Syria and other countries.
State budget (2002, billion drams): revenues 159.9, expenditures 162.3. The public external debt in 2000 amounted to 200% of the value of exports.
The average monthly nominal salary is AMD 26,444. The minimum wage is 5000 AMD. The average pension is AMD 4574 (2001), the minimum retirement pension is AMD 3000, the minimum amount of university student scholarships is AMD 4000 (2002).
Foreign trade (2002, million US dollars): export to the CIS countries 88, to other countries 369; import from the CIS countries 261, from other countries 616. The share of the CIS countries and other countries of the world in the total volume of export-import operations (2002,%): export to the CIS countries 19.3; to other countries of the world 80.7; import from the CIS countries 29.8; from other countries of the world 70.2. According to the EBRD, in 2002, $80 million was attracted as foreign direct investment in Armenia.
Cooperation between the Russian Federation and Armenia is successfully developing. Since 1992, more than 170 treaties and agreements have been signed in all spheres of interstate cooperation. In 2002, an agreement was signed on the transfer of state property to Armenia to pay off the debt to the Russian Federation (100 million US dollars). Its significance lies in the fact that among the CIS members it is signed for the first time.
Science and culture of Armenia
The rapid development of scientific thought in Armenia began after the creation of the Armenian alphabet by M. Mashtots (in 405-06). In the 7th century mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine, etc. began to develop.
Modern natural science began to develop from ser. 1920s, Yerevan University (1920) became the main center. The Academy of Sciences (AN) was established in 1943. Achievements in the field of astronomy and physics are associated with the Bureaukan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences, headed by V.A. Ambartsumyan. Armenian scientists achieved certain successes in the field of mathematical research, the Computing Center of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia and the Institute of Computers were formed (development of cybernetics problems, creation and application of high-speed computers).
Economic science has developed. A galaxy of scientists grew up under the leadership of A.A. Arzumanyan. A new education system has been created in Armenia. Secondary (or general) education is carried out in 3 stages: primary classes (3 years), secondary (5 years)
and older (2 years). Higher education functions as a unified four-stage system that provides for the possibility of continuous learning: 1) initial or preparatory stage (colleges) (1–2 years), 4 years), 3) magistracy, which involves specialization and training of highly qualified specialists (2 years), and finally, 4) postgraduate education – postgraduate studies that train personnel for the universities themselves and research institutes (3 years). At the same time, the opportunity was left for the traditional five-year university education.
In 2002, there were 1.4 thousand general education schools, 62 gymnasiums, 1 lyceum, 110 specialized secondary educational institutions, 101 higher educational institutions in Armenia. Per 10,000 people of the population, 1,404 people studied in daytime general education schools, 81 in secondary specialized educational institutions, and 161 people in higher educational institutions.
The largest higher educational institutions: Yerevan State University (YSU), State Engineering University, Institute of National Economy, Agricultural Academy, Institute of Foreign Languages. V. Bryusov, Medical Academy, American University of Armenia (AUA) – a branch of the University of California, USA. The Russian-Armenian University was opened in Yerevan.
Among the libraries of Armenia, the world-famous Matenadaran is one of the world’s largest repositories of ancient manuscripts and archival documents on the history of Armenia.
The emergence of progressive romanticism in Armenian literature is associated with the name of Kh. Abovyan. It was replaced by the era of realistic drama. The spokesman for the ideas of the national liberation movement of the 1870-80s. became G. Artsruni. In the 1880s-90s. critical realism becomes the leading direction.
One of the main representatives of the literary period of the 1920s. – E. Charents and others, representatives of the 1940-60s. — A. Orbeli, S.B. Kaputikyan and others. The book miniature was the leading type of fine art. Applied art is represented by a variety of ceramics, embroidery, and chasing. In the 18th century features of realism appear. In the 1830s-70s. a galaxy of artists appears, headed by I.K.
Aivazovsky. In the 1920s and 30s. M.S. played an important role in the formation of the Armenian Soviet art school. Saryan. In the 1930s the ballet “Gayane”, “Spartacus” (A. Khachaturian) is being created. Musical performance art is developing (G.M. Gasparyan, P.G. Lisitsian, Z.A. Dolukhanova, A.M. Aydinyan, A.Sh. Melik-Pashaev). The Academic Opera and Ballet Theater has been operating since 1933. As part of the Philharmonic – a symphony orchestra, a chamber orchestra, there is a conservatory. V.A. Komitas. Cinema is developing successfully, many artists, directors, well-known outside of Armenia, appear. In 1995, the Union of Cinematographers of Armenia was established.