Japan Early History Part II

After numerous religious ceremonies, the fleet leaves under his command and with divine intervention the expedition reaches Shinra, the conquest and, subjected to the sovereign who promises to send annual tributes to Japan, returns home leaving the minister Yada- no-sukune to the surveillance of conquered lands. We are, according to the official chronology, at 200 d. C. The empress, who has just arrived, gives birth to a son, the same one that she carried in her womb at the departure and who is now revered as a god of war, with the name of Hachiman. In the imperial line he is the 15th emperor Ōj in, under whose reign tradition records the introduction of Chinese writing and texts by Achiki (284 AD) and Wani (285 AD), Korean literati sent with the annual embassies bearing the taxes. The reign of his successor, the fubito) in charge of recording the events.

Notes on prehistory. – No one today doubts more that the first to inhabit the archipelago were the Ainu, who, reduced today to a few thousand individuals concentrated in Yezo, Sakhalin and the Kurils, must have had a much wider distribution in ancient times, such as the same toponymy of the archipelago and eastern Siberia demonstrates. In fact, if the name Fuji of the most famous mountain in Japan clearly reveals the origin ainu (fuchi or fuji, the fire considered as a divinity, as opposed to abe, fire in the common sense), the same can be said, for example. of Mauka, in Sakhalin (from mau, the bays and ka, extremities), and of Parato, in Siberia (para, vast and to, the needle). It is not certain whether other populations existed alongside the Ainu; it seems, however, sure that, last to arrive, were the ancestors of today’s Japanese, who found the Ainu in the Stone Age. What race did the newcomers belong to? In what age did they come? These questions can only be answered imperfectly. The mixed race characters are evident in the Japanese and anthropologists distinguish two types: the Mongoloid, widespread especially in the center and on the coasts of the Sea of ​​Japan, and the Malay, prevalent in the south. And since some somatic features of the Malay type recall the Negrito, some admit its local formation from crosses of Mongols and Negrito. However, the existence of two migratory flows seems certain, one from the Asian continent, the other from the south; the first, most important, of Mongoloids, the other of Negrito or protomalesi. Some believe they can put this latter flow before the previous one, which would have two main phases of intensity: at the beginning, around 1000 BC. C., and towards the Common Era, after which it continued for several centuries, up to historical times. According to F. Brinkley, the first flow was in the Bronze Age, the second in the Iron Age.

According to FASHIONISSUPREME.COM, the examination of the geographical position and the consideration that the most ancient legends of Japan can be grouped into three main cycles: the Izumo cycle, the Tsukushi cycle (today Kyūshū) and the Yamato cycle, lead to the conclusion that on the coasts of Izumo (northern part of the province of Shimane), and on those of the island of Kyushu the first settlements of the newcomers had to be formed. In an unspecified period, but certainly after a long time, from Kyushu, the invaders, through the Inner Sea, passed to the island of Hondo, settling in the region of Yamato; and precisely this passage, which certainly had to be carried out in a non-peaceful way due to the hostility of the aborigines, is to be seen in the expedition of Jimmu Tennō, which started from M. Takachiho, and ended with the foundation of Kashiwabara, in the Yamato.

The indigenous history shows, as we have seen, from the beginning, the country gathered and organized under the imperial authority. On the other hand, the lesson that can be drawn from the Chinese chronicles, of much greater value for the historian, is different. It is a fact that the chronicle of the later Han dynasty (25-220 AD) the Hou Han Shu, finished in 424, speaking of the Wo (as the Japanese are called) ignores the existence of a reigning ruler in central Japan, since he says that their country is divided into a large number of communities and tribes ruled by hereditary chiefs, while, on the other hand, he seems to clearly allude to the empress Jingō Kōgō when he reports that from 147 to 190, after fierce internal struggles, the different warring tribes established to recognize the authority of a woman, Queen Himiko, who was in communication with the gods and knew how to invoke them with all sorts of exorcisms. However, even if we want to admit, as some admit, the real existence of Jimmu Tennō, his work of unification has to be moved several centuries after the tradition. And, in fact,, recently in possession of the Chinese calendar and script to know the exact date of the foundation of the Empire. Faced with a tradition which affirmed the divine origin of the dynasty, they had to place the existence of Jimmu in an epoch bordering that of the gods, to whom popular belief attributed the creation of the archipelago, placing their existence before that some men; on the other hand, since the imperial line was already known and established, it was necessary to attribute to the first sovereigns incredibly long ages, which thus, according to J. Martin (Le Shinto ī sme, Hong-Kong 1924-27, I, p. 88), they would find a logical explanation.

Japan Early History 2