According to SUNGLASSESTRACKER.COM, the support, that it would have been provided by the Chinese authorities to bandits expelled from the Manchu territory, the obstruction of Japanese initiatives, the murder of two Japanese journalists in T’ientsin, marked the resumption of the ancient difficulties. For its part, the Nanking government complained about the action, aimed at promoting a separatist movement, carried out by the military command of the Kwan tung (supposed, rightly or wrongly, to act independently or even against the will of the Tōkyō government). The serious tension created, however, found an outlet in the agreement signed by the Minister of War Ho and General Umetsu, which gave complete satisfaction to the Japanese questions. But the constitution of the “autonomous anti-communist government of the eastern Ho-pei” well regarded by the Japanese, and that, parallel, of the ” it brought new nourishment to conflicts. By repercussion, the anti-Japanese movement in China, based on terrorist attacks and assassinations (events in Swatow, Chengtu, Pawhoi, Hankow) intensified. In turn, the Chinese accused the Japanese of favoring the enormous smuggling carried out on the coasts of the Hopei and the demilitarized zone to the detriment of Chinese customs, and of organizing attacks with Mongolian and Manchu troops on the Nanjing forces, such as the aggression they suffered. in the east of Sui-yüan. In this atmosphere, saturated with new electricity after Sian-fu’s Chang Kai-shek-Chang Hsu-liang adventure (v.China, App.), The fatal accident of Lu-ku chao (near Beijing) broke out (July 1937), caused by the attack by Chinese regulars on a Japanese company, which was carrying out night exercises, according to normal customs, according to the Japanese, and on the basis of the protocol of September 1901 (which sanctioned the right of the powers represented in Beijing to keep military forces for their protection, with the consequent faculty of their commanders to have maneuvers, exercises, etc. carried out): contrary to any tolerable use, according to the Chinese thesis. Despite an agreement reached between the local authorities, not recognized by the Nanjing government, and precisely for this reason, the situation quickly worsened. The Tōkyō government, alarmed by Chinese movements in the north, opposed, in its opinion, the armistice of Tanghu and the Ho-Umetsu agreement, and the growing agitation of the Blue Shirts (extreme nationalists) in union with the Communists, decided to send strong contingents, proclaiming at the same time the purely defensive purpose of the provision and the clear intention of the respect for foreign interests. But in the meantime his troops marched on T’ien-tsin and Beijing, while the Chinese aviation, misdirected in its objective (probably that of hitting Japanese ships), instead sowed the massacre in the international concession in Shanghai. This act was considered by the Japanese as a violation of the armistice concluded in that city in 1932, and numerous forces were also sent to that sector, for a thorough action.
Faced with such serious complications and Tōkyō’s clear declaration of not wanting to admit mediation, the Western powers limited themselves to the usual recommendations, refraining from political or even economic interventions. (It is symptomatic that the United States did not believe it was applying the provisions of its neutrality law to the conflict.) China then resorted to the League of Nations, asking for the application of Articles 10, 11 and 17 of the Covenant. On the proposal of the committee in charge of the dispute (the same one that had been set up for the conflict in Manchuria), the assembly approved a motion (5 October), in which, after having assured its moral support to China, it entrusted the nine powers of the Washington treaty study of the situation ” contesting its jurisdiction and in any case arguing the inapplicability of the treaty to the conflict, which it was up to the parties to resolve directly between themselves. Thus the conference, of which Italy, with a logical and realistic vision of the facts, had foreseen the uselessness, given the initial attitude of Japan, closed, updating itself contesting its jurisdiction and in any case arguing the inapplicability of the treaty to the conflict, which it was up to the parties to resolve directly between themselves. Thus the conference, of which Italy, with a logical and realistic vision of the facts, had foreseen the uselessness, given the initial attitude of Japan, closed, updating itself sine die without any result. And the continuation of hostilities led the Japanese to the occupation of Nanjing itself as well as Shanghai (11-13 December 1937) and to an offensive of large proportions in the spring of 1938. V. Chinese – Japanese, war (App.).
Cultural relations with Italy. – In recent years, they have improved considerably also as a result of the political rapprochement between the two nations. In Italy, the Institute for the Middle and Far East awaits you with great care, also promoting the exchange between the two countries of scientists and scholars from every branch of culture. The Italian-Japanese institute for the development of such relationships was founded in Japan with very promising results.