As one of the countries in Oceania featured by COUNTRYAAH.COM, the country’s ports of call are Suva and Lautoka on Viti Levu and Levuka on Ovalau. Of these, Suva is the largest and serves more than 800 vessels annually. International airport is located in Nandi, located on the west coast of Viti Levu, and domestic airport in Nausori, north of Suva. The railway network covers 597 km and serves sugarcane cultivations on mainly Viti Levu.
Shipping and aviation are the most important means of transport. The largest port is in Betio in southern Tarawa, and the national airline Air Tungaru maintains connections between southern Tarawa and the other Gilberto group atolls as well as Kiritimati. The country’s two international airports are located in southern Tarawa and Kiritimati.
The 5 km long railway is exclusively intended for phosphate transport. The road network consists mainly of the 16 km long paved coastal road around the island. Nauru lacks a natural harbor within the coral reef and the ships must anchor at the steep exterior of the reef. The country’s own merchant fleet comprises three ocean-going vessels. The state airline, Our Airline, has connections with Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and a number of smaller states in the Pacific.
The topography has meant that settlement and thus transport networks have been concentrated to the east side of the South Island and to the coasts of the North Island. The narrow-gauge (1,067 mm) railways covered about 4,100 km in 2010, of which 1/8 were electrified, and the road network covered 92,200 km.
New Zealand, which is heavily dependent on shipping, has 13 major ports. The most important are in Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, Lyttelton (outside Christchurch) and Port Chalmers (near Dunedin), all expanded and modernized in the 1990s. International airports are located in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.
Traditionally, the state has been very involved in the transport sector, but during the 1990s, more and more businesses, such as the railway, most ports and shipping companies and airlines, were gradually privatized.
Papua New Guinea
Inadequate transport systems impose serious restrictions on the country’s development and on nation-building. The rugged terrain means that a north-south road is missing and that the national roads in different parts of the main island are not joined to an entire network. There is still no good road connection between the two largest cities Port Moresby and Lae. Hard all-weather roads are unusual and road maintenance is inadequate because money is missing. Papua New Guinea also has no railways, and during periods of heavy rain, heavy freight transport is impossible. In the cities, minibuses are the usual means of transport. Air travel is the important means of transport for longer journeys and for the transport of valuable and less bulky goods. Remote settlements can only be reached on foot or by light aircraft that can land on the grassy runways. Such are found in nearly 600 locations in the country. There are two international airports, of which the most important is the Jackson International Airport in Port Moresby. The largest airline is the State Air Niugini.
Port Moresby also has the most important export port. From 2010, it is being expanded to a large extent to increase container capacity and, above all, to allow the export of liquid natural gas. There are also about ten ports for merchant vessels and a large number of additional places for wooden canoes and other small boats, which are the most common means of transport along the coasts and on the rivers.
A serious constraint on economic development is the long distances and thus the difficulties in linking the different parts of the country. Domestic flights and boat traffic between the island groups are necessary but very costly.
The largest ports are in Honiara and Yandina, and the Solomon Islands have regular boat connections with Australia, Japan and New Zealand. The best roads are on the island of Guadalcanal, where the country’s international airport is also located.
An extensive road network is mainly found on the largest island, Tongatapu. The two major ports are Nuku’alofa on Tongatapu and Neiafu on Vava’u and regular boat traffic links the more populated islands. The international airport is outside the capital Nuku’alofa and from there the state airline Royal Tongan Airlines has connections with New Zealand and Fiji.
Road networks are only available at Funafuti, which also has the only deep harbor. The smaller islands are reached by small boats and seaplanes. Tuvalu has flight connections with Fiji and Kiribati from the country’s only runway at Funafuti.
Other countries and dependencies
Norfolk Island – Oceania
Norfolk Island is a state in Oceania. The capital of the country is Kingston. About 1,800 people live on Norfolk Island. The official languages are English and Norfuk. The Norfolk Island covers an area of around 35 km².
French Polynesia – Oceania
French Polynesia is a French overseas territory in Polynesia. The capital of the country is Papeete. Approximately 270,000 French Polynesians and French Polynesians of other nationalities live in French Polynesia. The official language is French. French Polynesia covers an area of around 4,170 km².
American Samoa – Oceania
American Samoa is a state in Oceania. The capital of the country is Pago Pago. American Samoa has a population of around 58,000. The official languages are Samoan and English. American Samoa covers an area of around 200 km².