Mongolia Country Facts

Mongolia is located between Central and East Asia and is a sparsely populated landlocked country. It borders Russia in the north and the People’s Republic of China in the south. The Mongolian landscape is characterized by steppes, high mountains and parts of the Gobi desert. The capital is Ulan Bator.

Mystical traditions and nature in its most original form attract adventure vacationers and nature lovers to the land of Chinggiskhaan. Most of the sights of Mongolia are outside the cities and are spread across the country.

If you only spend a few days in Mongolia, we recommend a trip to the Tereji nature reserve, which is about 70 kilometers from the capital Ulan Bator. Here you can experience a cross-section of the unique natural landscape of Mongolia.

One of the most interesting places in Mongolia is the Gurvan Saichan National Park near Dalansadgad. One of the largest sites of dinosaur bones in the world can be found here, which are released in the sandstone formation by natural erosions.

The population of Mongolia consist of 85 percent Mongols. Western Mongolia is populated by ethnic minorities. These are, among other things, the Turkic peoples. These include the Kazakhs and the Tuvinians. In addition, some Russians and Chinese live in the cities. Some of these work in mining.

Mongolia is one of the countries with the lowest population density worldwide. Only the Western Sahara and Greenland are sparsely populated. It has to be said here that the number of inhabitants in Mongolia has doubled in the past decades! When the socialist form of government prevailed in Mongolia, the population grew faster. Every year the population increased by 3 percent. Extended families were not uncommon. After Mongolia became a democracy, the extended families also disappeared from the scene. There was no longer any financial incentive or social reason to give birth to many children.

Mongolia Country Facts

Area: 1,564,116 km² (land: 1,553,556 km², water: 10,560 km²)

Population: 3.1 million inhabitants (July 2011, COUNTRYAAH.COM). Mongols (mostly Chalcha) 94.9%, Turkic peoples (mostly Kazakhs) 5%, others (such as Chinese and Russians) 0.1% (2000).

Population density: 2.0 people per km²

Population growth: 1.489% per year (2011, CIA)

Capital: Ulan Bator (1,044 million inhabitants, May 2008)

Highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil), 4,374 m

Lowest point: Hoh Nuur, 518 m

Form of government: Mongolia has been a republic since 1992 (previously the People’s Republic), the constitution dates from the same year. The unicameral parliament ( Grand Volkshural ) is made up of 76 members. The head of state is directly elected every 4 years. Mongolia has been independent of China since 1921, although it was not recognized by China until 1946.

Administrative division: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular: aymag): Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Orhon, Omnog Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov and Uvs
a capital (hot): Ulaanbaatar

Head of government: Prime Minister Süchbaataryn Batbold, since October 29, 2009

Head of state: President Tsachiagiin Elbegdordsch, since June 18, 2009

Language: The official language in Mongolia is Mongolian, which is spoken by 90% of the population. Also Turkic languages ​​and Russian.

Religion: Lamaist Buddhism 50%, Shamanists and Christians 6%, Muslims 4%, no denomination 40% (2004)

Local time: Western Mongolia: CET +6 h.
There is no changeover between summer and winter time in western Mongolia.
The time difference to Central Europe is +6 h in winter and +5 h in summer.
Central Mongolia: CET + 8 h. Summer time from late March to late September: CET +9 h

The time difference to Central Europe is +8 h all year round.
Eastern Mongolia: CET + 8 h.
In Eastern Mongolia there is no change between summer and winter time.
The time difference to Central Europe is +8 h in winter and +7 h in summer.

International dialing code: +976


Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz


Mongolia is located in Central and East Asia. The Russian Federation borders the country in the north (3,485 km border length), in the south China (4,677 km border length). Mongolia has no access to the sea, so it is a landlocked country. The population density is very low at 1.9 inhabitants per square kilometer (smallest value of all independent states).

The country can be divided into four regions: forest steppe in the north (about 10% of the country is forested), mountain steppe further south, and semi-desert and desert in the south (which covers about 3% of the territory). Not even 1% of the country’s area is used for agriculture.

The highest mountain ranges in the relatively high altitude of Mongolia are in the west. The highest elevation at 4,374 m is the Munkhairkhan. The Khukhu Nuur lake in the east is the lowest point in the country at 518 m.

The northernmost region of Mongolia is the most distant point on earth. The world’s southernmost permafrost has also formed in the country, the Gobi Desert is the northernmost desert in the world.

Mongolian population

This map of the population distribution in Mongolia was created by the Worldmapper team. Densely populated areas appear bloated, the area of ​​sparsely populated areas is reduced. The shape of the grid has been preserved; an underlying map with the original geographical extent helps interpret the map. The distorted map should help to present abstract statistical information clearly.

Mongolia Population by Year (Historical)

Mongolia climate

Due to its location in the highlands of Central Asia, Mongolia has a very extreme continental and dry climate. The temperatures differ greatly over the course of the year: in winter, the average daytime temperatures can drop to −30 ° C, in summer to 20 ° C. Because of the high altitude, the evenings are cool even in summer.

Summer temperatures in the Gobi can reach 40 ° C, snow falls here in winter and some lakes remain frozen until June.

Mongolia has around 260 sunny days a year, only in the summer the sky is cloudy. The humidity is usually very low.

On average, 200 to 220 mm of precipitation falls in short showers a year, with about 400 mm in the north and less than 100 mm in the southern Gobi Desert. 80% to 90% of the precipitation falls between May and September.

Ulaanbaatar is perhaps the coldest capital in the world. Temperatures begin to drop below 0 °C in October, drop to -30 °C in January and February, and remain below freezing until April. Heavy dust storms occur during the short spring (May to June). July to September is pleasant, but it can suddenly get cold and most of the rain falls during this period.